Our collection of places with great views has been collated from many resources:
- personal experiences
- recommendations by family and friends (thanks everyone!!)
- extensive internet research including lists of the tallest buildings, towers and other structures published by:
- travel media, articles and posts by travel bloggers
- social media tips via twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram
Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat CTBUH defines a structure as a building if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion are defined as towers.
Towers are defined as tall man-made structures, meant for regular access by humans but not for living in or office work. Self-supporting or free-standing and with no guy-wires for support, towers can stand alone or as part of a larger structure. The technical definition of a tower excludes radio and TV masts or transmission towers, bridge towers or pylons, chimneys and most large statues.
In the Views on Top app, structures erected for the purpose of TV/radio transmission that are not buildings, are categorised as ‘Towers’
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat CTBUH uses 3 criteria to measure the height of a tall building:
- Height to architectural top: Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building. This includes spires, but does not include antennae, signage, flagpoles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely used and is used to define the CTBUH rankings of the Tallest Buildings in the World.
- Highest occupied floor: Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest continually occupied floor within the building. Maintenance areas are not included.
- Height to tip: Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element. This includes antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment.
The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It opened on 4 January 2010 and is 829.8 m (2,722 ft) tall, with more than 160 stories. The Burj Khalifa is also the world’s tallest structure (a record previously held by the KVLY-TV mast in Blanchard, North Dakota) and the tallest free-standing structure (a record previously held by Toronto’s CN Tower).
CTBUH has illustrated their prediction of the world’s tallest 20 buildings in 2020:
You’ll need focus and determination. Keep breathing – your feet won’t leave the ground that you’re standing on, and the floor won’t give way.
Here’s a great quote from an article in the London Telegraph London written by Chris Bell, 17 August 2013:
Fears arise from experience: from what we are told, what we see others experience and, more explicitly, what happens to us. However, fears can be unlearnt. It’s known as ‘reconsolidation’, non-invasive techniques that essentially reactivate our worst nightmares, then ‘rewrite’ how we remember them so they don’t seem so bad.
One of the most celebrated experiments began – as far too few discoveries do – with a man shining a torch at a goldfish. In 2010, researchers at Hiroshima University taught goldfish to become afraid of a flashing light. Each time the light was switched on, the fish received a low-voltage electric shock – and before long became afraid of the light, even without the shock. By injecting the anaesthetic lidocaine, however, the researchers were able to switch off the fear centre in the brain and from then on, the fish were unafraid. They had ‘unlearnt’ their fear of light.
This raised issues. Not least, don’t fish look startled most of the time? But more importantly, as goldfish brains have similarities with those of humans, could a similar approach lead to treatments for phobias? The answer, it seems now, is yes.
The ‘fear centre’ in the human brain is the amygdala, an almond-size mass nestling beneath the temporal lobe. It not only co-ordinates our response to scary situations but stores many of our negative emotions and memories. The success of exposure therapy – in which patients put themselves in the situations they find frightening – proves the amygdala is adaptable, but scientists have discovered that drugs such as D-cycloserine – usually used to treat tuberculosis – can speed up this process of ‘unlearning’ fear. A protein in D-cycloserine appears to kick-start a chain of neurochemical events so that, in one study, people with acrophobia reported a significant reduction in fear after only two sessions of psychotherapy rather than the normal eight.
“If you’re, say, frightened of heights,” Nutt says, “then current exposure therapy means taking you up a tall building – or via virtual reality – and repeating it until the fear subsides. The new drugs not only speed this process up, but make it more permanent. So people can overwrite their fear memories more quickly, replacing a bad experience with a different version.”